Pretoria (/prɪˈtɔːriə/ pri-TOR-ee-ə; Zulu: ePitoli; Tswana: Tshwane) is the administrative capital of South Africa. It straddles the Apies River and has spread eastwards into the foothills of the Magaliesberg mountains. It is one of the country’s three capital cities, serving as the seat of the administrative branch of government (Cape Town is the legislative capital and Bloemfontein the judicial capital), and of foreign embassies to South Africa. Pretoria has a reputation for being an academic city with three universities, the Tshwane University of Technology (TUT), University of Pretoria (UP), and the University of South Africa (UNISA), also home to the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), and the Human Sciences Research Council. The city also hosts the National Research Foundation and the South African Bureau of Standards making the city a hub for research. Pretoria is the central part of the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality which was formed by the amalgamation of several former local authorities including Centurion and Soshanguve. There have been proposals to change the name of Pretoria itself to Tshwane and the proposed name change has caused some public controversy. Pretoria was one of the host cities of the 2010 FIFA World Cup.
Pretoria is named after the Voortrekker leader Andries Pretorius, and within South Africa sometimes called the “Jacaranda City” due to the thousands of jacaranda trees planted in its streets, parks and gardens.